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追寻《我们现在怎样做父亲》的深层逻辑

鲁迅之问 百年回响

发布时间:2019-12-26 作者:孙郁 来源:中国教育报

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五四运动前后,鲁迅对于“人”的觉醒一直有一种期待,对儿童问题有一种敏感。因为那时候不仅缺少“人之子”,也难见“人之父”。此前他翻译介绍过日本的《儿童之好奇心》《儿童观念界之研究》《与幼小者》等作品,都与儿童生存困境有关,由此“才知道孩子的世界,与成人截然不同;倘不先行理解,一味蛮做,便大碍于孩子的发达”。

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《WOMENXIANZAIZENYANGZUOFUQIN》YIWEN,BAWENHUAWENTIZHUANHUAWEIRICHANGDESHENGHUOLUNLIWENTI,WENZISHENCHUYOUZHEXINDEDAODELUNLIHEXINDEWENHUALUOJIDESHANGUANGDIAN,BUJINCHUANDALEDUIYUCHUANTONGWENHUADEJIBENTAIDU,ERQIEYOUZHEKAIPIXINLUDEZERENCHENGDAN,BIQIKONGDONGDEKOUHAO,DAIYOUGENGQIESHIDELILIANG。

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因此,鲁迅提出爱的概念,但这爱是觉醒者的爱。他说:“所以觉醒的人,此后应将这天性的爱,更加扩张,更加醇化:用无我的爱,自己牺牲于后起新人。开宗第一,便是理解。往昔的欧人对于孩子的误解,是以为成人的预备;中国人的误解,是以为缩小的成人。直到近来,经过许多学者的研究,才知道……一切设施,都应该以孩子为本位……时势既有改变,生活也必须进化;所以后起的人物,一定优异于前,决不能用同一模型,无理嵌定。长者须是指导者协商者,却不该是命令者。不但不该责幼者供奉自己;而且还须用全副精神,专为他们自己,养成他们有耐劳作的体力,纯洁高尚的道德,广博自由能容纳新潮流的精神,也就是能在新潮流里游泳,不被淹没的力量。”

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重要的是,其间有殉道的精神,内中喷吐的是大的情感。如他一再所说:“自己背着因袭的重担,肩住了黑暗的闸门,放他们到宽阔光明的地方去;此后幸福地度日,合理地做人。”鲁迅在面对新文化的思路时表现的悲悯精神,与历史上的圣贤们比毫不逊色。

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以自己的痛感作为问题的出发点,是鲁迅与同代人不同的地方。这些问题在百年后的今天依然有着不小的价值。他认为:“子女是即我非我的人,但既已分立,也便是人类中人。因为即我,所以更应该尽教育的义务,交给他们自立的能力;因为非我,所以也应同时解放,全部为他们自己所有,成一个独立的人。”今天我们研究五四,研究鲁迅,不能不深深注意这些原点的存在。

DANGRENDEJUEXINGHERENDEGEXINGCHENGZHANGSHOUCUODESHIHOU,NANYOU“RENZHIFU”,ZIRANJIUMEIYOU“RENZHIZI”,YEZIRANMEIYOUZHONGGUODEWEILAI。

(ZUOZHEXIZHONGGUORENMINDAXUEWENXUEYUANJIAOSHOU,CENGRENBEIJINGLUXUNBOWUGUANGUANZHANG)

《ZHONGGUOJIAOYUBAO》2019NIAN12YUE26RIDI10BAN 

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