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美国大学的法治传统、实践与启示

——董事会制度的视角

发布时间:2020-01-15 作者:王绽蕊 来源:《北京教育》杂志

摘 要:3D跨度走势图董事会制度是美国大学法治化治理的集中体现。从美国大学董事会制度的发展、演变与实践,可以看出美国大学法治传统深厚,法治体系系统、灵活、多样,法律规定和法治手段针对性、可操作性很强。我国和美国法律体系不同,很难直接移植美国的具体做法,但对美国大学法治传统和实践的考察仍可以给我们带来重要启示。

关键词:3D跨度走势图美国大学;法治;传统;实践;启示

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从董事会制度看美国大学的法治传统

1.始自原点的法治传统:立法机构授权下的法人董事会治理

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2.董事会受托管理传统

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3.依法治校的传统

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4.董事会集体权力与董事个人权力界限分明的法治传统

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从董事会制度看美国大学的法治实践

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1.董事会的法人地位

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2.董事会受到的法律规制和保护

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3.董事会依法治理大学

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美国大学法治的特征及启示

1.法治传统深厚

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2.法治体系系统、灵活、多样

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3.法律规定和法治手段针对性、可操作性很强

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第一,我国大学要将“依法治校”落到实处。3D跨度走势图一方面,需要进一步完善教育法律法规体系,加强法律的针对性、可操作性,使治校有法可依;另一方面,需要将“依法治校”从政策要求变为治理理念和治理原则,成为大学学术共同体的自觉和共识,两者缺一不可。没有完善而成熟的法律无法很好地实现“依法治校”,有了相应的法律法规,没有对法律的尊重和重视,也无法将“依法治校”由口号变为行动。要认识到“法律”并不仅仅是写在纸上的空洞法律条文,更与大学的治理与决策实践息息相关。在这方面,我国还有很长的路要走。

第二,重视传统的治理价值,重视培育我国大学“依法治校”的传统,同时恰当地处理传统与制度创新的关系。过去的历史并没有消失,也不会消失。如果说我国大学“依法治校”的传统并不深厚是一个事实,那么我们的法治建设需要的并不是回避或者忽视这一事实,而是正视它,实事求是地将它作为我国大学法治建设实践的起点。只有这样出发,才能离我们的大学法治建设理想和目标越来越近。

第三,大学法治建设、法治实践和法治教育息息相关。3D跨度走势图大学生的法治教育观念并不是全部从课堂教育得来的,社会环境、教职员工的言传身教都是他们法治信念和价值观的重要来源。只有整个社会的空气里都弥漫着尊重法律、重视法治的气息,才会使他们牢固地树立起法治观念。(作者:王绽蕊,单位:北京工业大学高等教育研究院)

BENWENXIQUANGUOJIAOYUKEXUE“SHISANWU”GUIHUA2018NIANDUGUOJIAYIBANKETI“ZHONGGUOTESEDAXUEZHILIZHUNZEYANJIU”(XIANGMUBIANHAO:BIA180201)JIEDUANYANJIUCHENGGUO

参考文献:

[1]HEZHEN.MEIGUODAXUEZIZHIZHIDUDEXINGCHENGYUFAZHAN[D].BEIJING:BEIJINGSHIFANDAXUE, 2004.

3D跨度走势图[2] TUOKEWEIER.LUNMEIGUODEMINZHU(SHANGJUAN)[M].DONGGUOLIANG,YI. BEIJING:SHANGWUYINSHUGUAN,1988:274.

[3]HEZHEN.MEIGUODAXUEZIZHIZHIDUDETEZHENGYUZHUTI[J]. XUESHUYANJIU, 2006(1):114-118.

[4][6]Burton R. Clark, Guy Neave. The Encyclopedia of Higher Education[M]. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1992:1497,1495.

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3D跨度走势图[7] CALIFORNIA CONSTITUTION - CONS.ARTICLE IX EDUCATION [SECTION 1 - SEC. 16]( Article 9 adopted 1879) [EB/OL].[2019-10-19].http://leginfo.legislature.ca.gov/faces/codes_displayText.xhtml?lawCode=CONS&division=&title=&part=&chapter=&article=IX.

[8][9]WANGZHANRUI.MEIGUOGAOXIAODONGSHIHUIZHIDU:JIEGOU、GONGNENGYUXIAOLVYANJIU[M].BEIJING:GAODENGJIAOYUCHUBANSHE,2010:132, 153.

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